« Because natural selection operates on pre-existing living organisms, novelties will initially arise as add-ons to systems already in existence, almost guaranteeing some redundancy. Thus, man-made machines, which are generally intelligently designed, will differ from the logic machines found in life. Living machines are not intelligently designed and will often be redundant and overly complex. We should anticipate these differences and be prepared for the additional complexity to be found in the logic circuits that manage information in cells. Lessons will also be learned from the higher levels of biological organization seen in communities of individuals, in ecological systems and during evolutionary change. The principles and rules that underpin how information is managed may share similarities at these different levels even though their elements are completely different. Studies at higher system levels are thus likely to inform those at the simpler level of the cell and vice versa. » ~ P. Nurse, “Life, logic and information”, Nature 2008.
February 23, 2011